i78 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP,
Court. She is generally known as Despina or " Princess."
This alliance was a distinct sign of the times.
The Invasion from Russia^ A.H. 664 (1266).—Soon
after his accession the territories of Abaga were invaded
by the Mongols of Russia. There was a desperately
contested battle in the valley of the Kur, but the invaders
ultimately retreated, and Abaga, in order to protect the
northern entrance to his empire, dug beyond the Kur a
great ditch which he fortified and garrisoned.
Hayton, King of Armenia and Baybars of Egypt, A.H.
664-665 (1266-1267).—Abaga also adopted a defensive
policy in the west, and afforded practically no help to
Hayton, the King of Armenia, who was left to make his
own terms with Baybars, the Bahri Mameluke. The
latter, after gaining successes over the Crusaders, from
whom he captured Caesarea and other cities, invaded
Cilicia, defeated an Armenian army, and captured the
Armenian heir-apparent. Peace was made in the end by
the surrender of various cities, to which Abaga took no
exception, as all his resources were required to meet an
invasion from the East.
The Invasion ofKhorasan by Borak, A.H. 668 (1270).—
In A.D. 1265 Khubilay had given Transoxiana to Borak,
the grandson of Chagatay, on condition that he attacked
Kaydu, the grandson of Ogotay, who refused to recognize
him as Khakan. Four years later these two princes made
peace, and it was decided that Borak should be supported
by Kaydu in an invasion of Khorasan. The troops of
Borak advanced as far as Nishapur, which they plundered
without serious opposition. But Abaga meanwhile was
preparing for the campaign and he was soon marching
eastwards along the trunk route which leads to
Khorasan. Upon reaching the district of Badghiz, to the
north of Herat, he sent envoys to Borak offering him
the provinces of Ghazna and Kerman ; but these terms
were refused. Abaga then by a clever ruse deluded the
enemy into thinking that he had returned precipitately to
defend his western frontiers, his object being to secure
a decisive issue to the campaign. A desperate battle was
fought near Herat. Abaga's left wing was broken and